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; see other names) is a city in southeastern Latvia, located on the banks of the Daugava River, from which the city gets its name. It is the second largest city in the country after the capital Riga, which is located some 230 kilometres (143 miles) to its north-west.Daugavpils is located relatively close to Belarus and Lithuania (distances of 33 km (21 mi) and 25 km (16 mi) respectively), and some 120 km (75 mi) from the Latvian border with Russia.Daugavpils is one of the few cities in Latvia which can pride itself on a unified ensemble of both classic and eclectic styles.The cultural heritage of architectural, artistic, industrial, and historical monuments combined with the picturesque surroundings create the essence of Daugavpils’ image and endow it with a special charm.Daugavpils and the whole of Latvia was under the Soviet Union rule between 1940––1991, while Germany occupied it between 19.The Nazis established the Daugavpils Ghetto where the town's Jews were forced to live. During the Cold War the Lociki air-base operated 12 km (7 mi) northeast of Daugavpils itself.More than 1,000 teachers and engineers graduate from the University of Daugavpils (formerly Daugavpils Pedagogical University) and the local branch of Riga Technical University annually.There is also one Polish school, the only in the city, on Varšavas iela (Warsaw Street).
In April 2013 the Mark Rothko Art centre was opened in fortress.Daugavpils is a major railway junction and industrial centre and lies approximately midway between Riga and Minsk.The city is surrounded by many lakes and nature parks.It was an uyezd center firstly in Pskov Governorate between 17, Polotsk one between 17, Belarus one between 17 and finally Vitebsk between 18 as Dinaburg firstly, as Dvinsk laterly during Russian rule.From 1784 onwards the city had a large and active Jewish population As part of the Russian Empire the city was called Dvinsk from 1893 to 1920.